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Abstract Detail

Diversity and Development in the Vitaceae - More than Wine Grapes

Ickert-Bond, Stefanie [1], Gerrath, Jean [2], Wen, Jun [3].

Gynoecium structure of Vitaceae and Leeaceae and implications for placentation evolution in the rosids.

The evolutionary relationships of the Vitales (the economically important Vitaceae and its sister Leeaceae) within the rosids have been difficult to resolve. Gynoecium structure, especially the placentation type, of the two families has been variously interpreted. A survey of gynoecial structure is undertaken within these two families and then the placentation types are compared among the angiosperms in a phylogenetic framework. Gynoecium structure and architecture in 21 species were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. Ancestral character reconstruction of gynoecia with axile, parietal, basal, apical, free-central, marginal or semi-parietal placentae across 640 genera presenting all 58 orders of angiosperm was inferred using maximum likelihood to help interpret the evolution of the gynoecium in the Vitales. The syncarpous ovary is bicarpellate in Vitaceae and tricarpellate in Leeaceae; in both it is fused to form the synascidiate zone. Placentae are located basally on the septum with generally two ovules per carpel. At a more distal level, septa do not reach the center, resulting in the ovary being incompletely bilocular in Vitaceae and incompletely trilocular in Leeaceae. Further morphological variations are a result of differential growth of the septa. In Cyphostemmaand some Cissus species septa are further reduced and the ovary is clearly unilocular. Ancestral character reconstruction using maximum likelihood across 640 angiosperm taxa infers parietal placentation to be the ancestral condition, while that of theSuperrosids is axile, with basal placentation inferred to be advanced within the clade. The placentation condition in Vitaceae and Leeaceae is best interpreted as an intermediate state between axile and parietal placentae, and we propose the new term, semi-parietal placentation. The study provides a basis for inferring the directionality of placentation evolution in the context of a wider investigation of rosid relationships.

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1 - University of Alaska Museum of The North, Herbarium (ALA) And Dept. of Biology And Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 907 Yukon Dr., Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA, 9074741510
2 - University of Guelph, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, CANADA
3 - Smithsonian Institution, Botany, MRC-166 National Museum of Natural History, 10th St. & Constitution Ave., NW, MRC 166, Washington/DC, N/A, 20013-7012, USA

gynoecium structure
placentation evolution
ancestral character reconstruction

Presentation Type: Symposium or Colloquium Presentation
Session: SY07
Location: Prince of Wales/Riverside Hilton
Date: Tuesday, July 30th, 2013
Time: 2:15 PM
Number: SY07003
Abstract ID:84
Candidate for Awards:None

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