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Abstract Detail



Ecophysiology

Yin, Jingjing [1], Fridley, Jason [2], Smith, Maria [3], Bauerle, Taryn [4].

Relating leaf phenology to vessel anatomy in native and exotic shrub species.

Leaf phenology of exotic plant species play an important role in invasion success. Exotics often occupy vacant phenological niches to use temporally unused resources. Both earlier spring leaf emergence and extended autumn leaf phenology have been found in many understory exotics. Species exhibiting either earlier spring leaf emergency or extended autumn leaf phenology may take the risks of experiencing the last/first frost in temperate regions or developing leaves before/after rainfall season in more arid areas. However, little is known about the anatomical mechanisms behind extended leaf phenology in exotics. In this study, we explored the relationships between leaf phenology and stem xylem anatomical characteristics across 37 exotic and native species common to Eastern United States deciduous forests. We examined xylem vessel anatomical characteristics in both earlywood and latewood fractions, including average and total vessel area, and vessel frequency. Positive correlations between c nuclear DNA content and cell volume have been reported in previous studies. Therefore, in this study, a subset of species was used to examine the relationship of DNA content with xylem anatomical characteristics. More than 70 percent of the exotic species we examined were diffuse-porous, reflecting similar vessel area and vessel frequency between earlywood and latewood, while within native species average vessel area and vessel frequency in earlywood were larger than those in latewood. The relatively consistent vessel size and vessel frequency between earlywood and latewood in exotic species may contribute to extended autumn leaf phenology by allowing for continued water transport in late summer, facilitating late summer growth and extending leaf duration into the autumn. Additionally, seventy percent of the exotic species developed metaxylem compared to only 10 percent of natives, suggesting metaxylem may play an important role in earlier spring establishment of these exotic species. Average vessel area and total vessel area were not significantly different between exotic and native species. DNA content was slightly negatively related to average vessel area, and positively related to vessel frequency in both exotic and native species. This study suggests that differences in xylem vessel anatomy between exotic and native species are associated with leaf phenology differences, and may help us better predict woody plant species fitness and distribution.

Broader Impacts:


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1 - 116 Farm Street, Apt. 1, Ithaca, NY, 14850, USA
2 - Syracuse University, Department of Biology, 107 College Place, Syracuse, NY, 13244, USA
3 - Cornell University, Department of Horticulture, 134A Plant Science Building, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA
4 - Cornell University, Horticulture, 134A Plant Science Bldg., Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA

Keywords:
Leaf phenology
vessel anatomy
exotic species
Native Species
DNA content.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Topics
Session: 27
Location: Elmwood/Riverside Hilton
Date: Tuesday, July 30th, 2013
Time: 11:30 AM
Number: 27006
Abstract ID:645
Candidate for Awards:Physiological Section Physiological Section Li-COR Prize


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