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Abstract Detail

Developmental and Structural Section

Horner, Harry [1], Samain, Marie-Stéphanie [2], Wanke, Stefan [3].

Towards unraveling leaf crystal macropatterns among Piperales lineages.

The order Piperales is one of the largest and most diverse Angiosperm orders including nearly all life and growth forms, occurring in a wide range of habitats from the tropics to temperate areas. Twenty-six species from 12 genera, representing all lineages of Piperales except the holoparasitic Hydnoraceae, display a mixture of calcium oxalate crystal types found in previous studies in the two Piperaceae genera Piper and Peperomia. Variable leaf anatomies, as a consequence of a diverse set of habitats occupied by the Piperales members, are investigated in a comparative study using recent molecular phylogenetic results as a basis for tracing character evolution. The presence of distinct shapes of calcium oxalate crystals and their arrangements or macropatterns in the leaves associated with them provide interesting anatomical and phylogenetic patterns. Eighty-five species of succulent Peperomia show a typically single photosynthetic cell layer either uniformly containing druses throughout the lamina or druses only over the veins, and sometimes prisms or raphides in the spongy parenchyma. Sixty-three species of Piper, with a different leaf anatomy, predominantly display crystal sand throughout the lamina with raphides and/or styloids occurring occasionally. Two species display very small druses. Placed in a phylogenetic context, several leaf crystal types and macropatterns of the lineages of Piperales emerge that suggest taxa associated with Peperomia more often display druses, whereas taxa associated with Piper more often display crystal sand. Within perianthless Piperales, the first branches display either no crystals or crystal sand (Saururaceae) or raphides in Verhuellioideae and Zippelioideae, indicating that the ancestral nodes might have no crystals at all or only single, simple crystal macropatterns. Within perianth-bearing Piperales a similar pattern can be observed, however less clear. Asaroideae and Lactoridaceae display either no crystals or very small crystals (crystal sand, prisms). The genus Thottea also does not show crystals. Again, the most derived taxa, as in perianthless Piperales (Piper, Peperomia), the genus Aristolochia displays a more complex mixture of crystals with druses, also indicating a trend towards more complex crystal macropatterns and might well be a parallel evolution towards complexity in both main branches of Piperales. Within Aristolochia macropatterns allow differentiation between subgenus Isotrema (small druses, random) and the other two subgenera. Further analysis is being applied to all of these data to ascertain whether there is a correlative basis to leaf crystal macropatterns within the order Piperales.

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1 - Iowa State University, Genetics, Development And Cell Biology Dept, 3A Bessey Hall, AMES, IA, 50010-1020, USA
2 - Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Centro Regional del Bajío, Avenida Lázaro Cárdenas 253, Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, 61600, Mexico
3 - TU Dresden, Dept. of Biology, Institut Of Botany, Zellescher Weg 20b, Dresden, N/A, 01062, Germany

none specified

Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Session: 31
Location: Jasperwood/Riverside Hilton
Date: Tuesday, July 30th, 2013
Time: 2:15 PM
Number: 31004
Abstract ID:239
Candidate for Awards:None

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